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Project P1

Improved Independence and Usability of Wheelchair Transportation on Large Accessible Transit Vehicles (LATVs)

Other Participants: Jong Bae Kim (consumer), John Tague (consumer), Al Little and Aaron Lamb (transit engineers), Dan Debone (transit provider) and Jean-Marc Girardin (manufacturer).

Industry Collaborators: My Amigo, Invacare, Sunrise Medical, Q’Straint, Port Authority Transit.


Overview

This project has been organized as three distinct yet interdependent tasks to be conducted over the five-year grant period.

  • Task P1.1: Research and evaluation of technologies for improved independence and usability of wheelchair passenger stations in LATVs.
  • Task P1.2: Development improved concepts and technologies to enhance the independence and usability of forward-facing wheelchair passenger spaces on LATVs.
  • Task P1.3: Complete the development of voluntary industry standards for wheelchair passenger stations in LATVs

Project Updates


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Task P1.1: Research and evaluation of technologies for improved independence and usability of wheelchair passenger stations in LATVs

Objectives

  • To evaluate the effectiveness and usability of alternate wheelchair securement concepts, experimental technologies
  • To identify and prioritize remaining deficiencies in wheelchair transportation on LATVs

Methods

To address the specific study questions, a LATV belonging to Port Authority Transit (PAT) in Pittsburgh, PA will be equipped with three types of ADA-compliant wheelchair passenger stations: a) forward-facing 4-point strap type tiedown, b) forward-facing automatic docking, and c) rear-facing containment. Evaluation and safety trials will be conducted, first on a test track (North Park, Pittsburgh, PA) with three types of modified test wheelchairs, followed by trials with 24 wheelchair-seated subjects on a study-designed city driving course, each using one of the three test wheelchairs (manual, power and scooter type WMD). Surveys will be developed for wheelchair users and bus drivers to assess the transportation experience and to evaluate each wheelchair securement station upon usability, comfort and safety. Focus group methodology employing both quantitative (Likert scale) and qualitative measures (nominal group process) will be used in addition to collect and analyze the wheelchair user and transit personnel experiences.

The LATV will be equipped with the following securement systems:

  • Station 1-Forward-Facing Standard WTORS Station: Includes an ADA-compliant, 4-point tiedown system with auto-retractors and a vehicle-anchored pelvic belt (QRT-Deluxe, Q’Straint).
  • Station 2-Forward-facing Docking Station: Includes an ISO 10542-3 compliant, prototype auto-docking wheelchair securement device that provides securement through a wheelchair-mounted universal wheelchair adapter (UDIG).
  • Station 3- A prototype RF-WPS now under development by the RERC and Q’Straint Inc.

Wheelchair selection/modification and instrumentation

To evaluate each WPS, three types of wheeled mobility devices: a standard manual, a typical powered, and a scooter-type wheelchair will be equipped with an integrated pelvic belt and a standard-compliant universal (UDIG) docking adapter. Modifications to each test wheelchair will be done in collaboration with its manufacturer (Sunrise Medical, Invacare and My Amigo).

For those individuals using power wheelchairs, an adjustable seatback (the V-Trac system) will be used to accommodate specific postural needs of test subjects. Also, any postural supports routinely used by the subjects will be used during the tests.

Video and a wheelchair mounted motion tracker will be used prior to the in-vehicle trial to determine the maximum values of wheelchair and dummy movement during a test-track evaluation. Video cameras will be used during the in-vehicle trials to capture the use of wheelchair securement systems.

Expected Outputs and Short-term Outcomes

Expected Outputs

  • User-based analysis of improvement to usability and perceived independence of newly evolving concepts and related experimental technologies for use in LATVs
  • A market-ready RF-WPS developed in partnership with a commercial partner
  • Identification and documentation of remaining deficiencies in wheelchair transportation on LATVs
  • Publications in peer-reviewed journals and technical reports

Expected Short Term Outcome

  • Significantly improved access to LATVs by persons with disabilities who use wheelchairs.

 


P1.1: July 2011 Project Update

Dissemination of project findings continued on this completed project. Two manuscripts accepted for publication in the Journal of Public Transportation and the Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development have been finalized. A third publication has been accepted for publication in the Journal of Public Transportation. Titles are as follows:

  • M Turkovich, L van Roosmalen, D Hobson, E Porach. Alternative wheelchair securement systems – Performance during normal and emergency driving in a public bus. Public Transportation Journal, 14(3): 147-169.
  • Van Roosmalen L, Karg P, Hobson D, Turkovich M, Porach E. User evaluation of three wheelchair securement systems in large accessible transit vehicles. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2011; 48(7): 823-38.
  • Van Roosmalen L, Hobson D, Karg P, DeLeo E, Porach E. User evaluation of three wTransit Operator Evaluation of Three Wheelchair Securement Systems in a Large Accessible Transit Vehicle. Accepted for publication in the Journal of Public Transportation, 2012.

P1.1: July 2011 Project Update

Dissemination of project findings continued on this completed project. Two manuscripts have been accepted for publication in the Journal of Public Transportation and the Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. A third publication has been drafted and is undergoing internal review for submission to the Journal of Public Transportation. Titles are as follows:

  • Alternative Wheelchair Securement Systems - Performance During Normal and Emergency Driving in a Public Bus (in press)
  • User Evaluation of Wheelchair Securement Systems in Large Transit Buses (in press)
  • Operator Evaluation of Wheelchair Securement Systems in Large Transit Buses (in preparation)

P1.1: July 2010 Project Update

Data collection and analysis have been completed. Two manuscripts have been completed and are being submitted to the Journal of Public Transportation and the Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development. A third publication will be completed in next reporting period. Titles are as follows:
- First manuscript: Alternative Wheelchair Securement Systems - Performance During Normal and Emergency Driving in a Public Bus. 
- Second manuscript: User Evaluation of Wheelchair Securement Systems in Large Transit Buses.
- Third manuscript: Operator Evaluation of Wheelchair Securement Systems in Large Transit Buses.


P1.1: July 2009 Project Update

In the summer of 2008, testing was conducted with 20 wheelchair users and 8 bus operators who were observed while riding on a large accessible city bus in which three different types of wheelchair securement systems had been installed. Each test wheelchair was modified to allow for forward-facing four-point tiedown securement, forward-facing universal docking securement, and rear-facing securement in the prototype wheelchair passenger station. Upon completion of each drive on a prescribed route through city streets, each subject and the driver were questioned using a survey form that had been developed previously. Survey results from the in-vehicle study were evaluated and remaining deficiencies of existing and innovative (prototype) wheelchair transportation safety technologies have been identified so that individual systems can be improved and/or new systems that better meet user needs can be developed. In addition, prior to subject testing, bus accelerations were obtained during bus rides involving sharp turns, sudden stops, and normal bus driving. Peak longitudinal accelerations during stops averaged about .6 g, and peak lateral accelerations during sharp turning averaged about .42 g. During normal driving, the peak longitudinal decelerations averaged about .46 g, which occurred during vehicle braking when traveling down steep hills. These vehicle-acceleration data were useful in completing the Committee Draft of ISO 10865-1 (rear-facing wheelchair passenger stations in large accessible transit vehicles) that was initiated under P1.3, including the test methods and performance criteria. They are also being used to develop a Preliminary Work Item for ISO 10865-2 that will address forward-facing wheelchair containment and occupant retention systems in large accessible transit vehicles.

A rear-facing wheelchair passenger station prototype was developed in partnership with a commercial partner and was demonstrated at a trade show.


P1.1: July 2008 Project Update

Wheeled mobility device modifications:

Three commonly used wheelchairs were selected for inclusion in the study. The two wheelchairs (partially) comply with WC19 but the Scooter has not been designed to comply with WC19. The selection includes:

  • Quickie 2 manual wheelchair (Sunrise Medical)
  • TDX-SP powered wheelchair (Invacare Corporation)
  • AMIGO SD scooter (AMIGO)

All three manufacturers were approached for their participation in this project and were asked to donate a wheelchair/scooter to the study. The following modifications were conceptualized so that the wheelchairs can be used in the study:

  • integrated a UDIG and pelvic belt mounting point onto the Quickie 2 wheelchair
  • integrated a UDIG, 4 anchors and a pelvic belt mounting point to the AMIGO scooter

We have completed the UDIG design for the Invacare wheelchair and Amigo scooter. We are awaiting the UDIG design from Sunrise Medical. We are finalizing integrated pelvic restraints for use on the manual wheelchair and scooter vehicle.

Wheelchair securement stations:

We have identified three securement stations to be evaluated in the study:

  1. 4-point tiedown system
  2. Rear facing passenger station
  3. Automated docking system

Ad a. Q’Straint has donated a state-of-the-art wheelchair tiedown system that will mount to the PAT bus arm.

Ad b. In collaboration with Q’Straint a prototype rear facing station was developed for use in the study. This prototype has been evaluated with a range of wheelchairs and scooters and should be ready for use in this study by the beginning of next year.

Ad c. Sure-Lok shipped the newest prototype of the automated docking device that will be used as the third securement system to be evaluated in LATV’s.

Study protocol:

An IRB protocol has been submitted for approval to the University of Pittsburgh. This protocol includes 2 surveys. One for wheelchair seated passengers and the other for the bus drivers.


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Task P1.2: Development of Improved Concepts and Technologies to Enhance the Independence and Usability of Forward-Facing Wheelchair Passenger Spaces on LATVs

Objectives

  • To develop concepts and related innovative technologies directed at resolving the remaining deficiencies in LATV wheelchair transportation, with emphasis on the forward-facing wheelchair transportation station (FF-WPS)
  • To initiate technology transfer with an industry partner to further develop and commercialize an innovative and user-friendly FF-WPS

Expected Outputs and Short-Term Outcomes

Expected Outputs

  • New and improved concepts and experimental technologies related to forward-facing wheelchair transport on LATVs.
  • A laboratory-tested prototype designed to enhance the independence and usability of forward-facing wheelchair passenger stations in LATVs.
  • Information such as design guidelines and performance measures that will help guide development of a new industry standard for FF-WPS.
  • Dissemination of results via peer-reviewed journals, courses, and technical reports.

Expected Outcome

  • Over the long term, a series of innovative standards-compliant products, designed to improve the usability, safety and independence of forward-facing wheelchair transportation in LATVs.


P1.2: July 2012 Project Update

Work has continued to transfer the developed forward facing wheelchair passenger space called the BudBuddy. A provisional patent was submitted in 2009 and then reworked into a non-provisional patent application and submitted by the University of Pittsburgh in May 2010. A first office action review was conducted on the application and UPITT has responded with counter arguments (April 2012). Dr. van Roosmalen will continue to work with UPITT to get patent approval on the BusBuddy FF-WPS design. Dr. van Roosmalen has contacted industry partners for potential collaboration and to further develop and test the forward-facing containment/retention system. The BusBuddy invention was published in a news article of Access Transit Report and was presented as a poster at the annual conference of the Transportation Research Board in January of 2012.

 


P1.2: July 2011 Project Update

In the first year of the project, based on data obtained from R1 (P1.1) Evaluation of Alternative Securement for Wheelchairs on Large Buses, several design concepts for securement/containment of occupied wheelchairs in forward-facing wheelchair passenger stations (FF-WPS) for use on large transit vehicles were generated. One design concept was selected and a physical mock-up was constructed and evaluated by students as part of a graduate-level design class. During this reporting period, improvements were made to the system to provide for independent wheelchair and scooter containment from forward movement, as well as independent retention of the wheelchair passenger in the wheelchair. Solutions to prevent rearward movement of wheelchairs were also developed. Detailed SolidWorks drawings were generated of the complete FF-WPS design.

A working prototype with a motorized lateral barrier and occupant barrier has been fabricated and assembled. A configuration of the prototype with vehicle seats has been staged in the lab. The system has been evaluated for use with different wheelchair types including a manual wheelchair, a powered wheelchair, and a 3-wheeled scooter. Using SurveyMonkey, a survey was developed for wheelchair users who ravel as passengers in large transit vehicles and for the operators of these vehicles. So far, feedback has been obtained from 14 individuals including 3 wheelchair users, 4 regular passengers, 3 bus operators and 4 operator instructors.

A provisional patent submitted in 2009 was reworked into a non-provisional patent application and submitted by the University of Pittsburgh in May 2010. Dr. van Roosmalen will to continue work on further development and testing of the forward-facing containment/retention system in the remaining months of the RERC WTS.

 


P1.2: July 2010 Project Update

Based on data obtained from R1 (P1.1) Evaluation of Alternative Securement for Wheelchairs on Large Buses, several design concepts for securement/containment of occupied wheelchairs in forward-facing wheelchair passenger stations (FF-WPS) for use on large transit vehicles were generated. One design concept was selected and a physical mock-up was constructed and evaluated by students as part of a graduate-level design class. Improvements were made to the system to provide for independent wheelchair and scooter containment from forward movement, as well as independent retention of the wheelchair passenger in the wheelchair. Solutions to prevent rearward movement of wheelchairs were also developed. Detailed SolidWorks drawings were generated of the complete FF-WPS design.

A provisional patent submitted in 2009 was reworked into a non-provisional patent application and submitted by the University of Pittsburgh in May 2010.

 


P1.2: July 2009 Project Update

Based on data obtained from P1.1 design concepts were generated by the PI and as part of a graduate level design class. Several sketches of forward facing concepts have been generated and are made into solid models so that they can be evaluated by potential end-users (wheelchair users, bus operators and bus seating manufacturers). A mock-up system was developed as part of a student design project.

A provisional patent was obtained on a conceptual idea for a forward facing wheelchair passenger station. This allows the investigators to discuss this idea freely with potential end users/manufacturers, without voiding commercial potential of the concept.

 


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Task P1.3: Complete the Development of Voluntary Industry Standards for Large Accessible Transit Vehicles

Objectives

  • To provide research and laboratory support for the ongoing development of US and ISO industry standard for rearward-facing wheelchair passenger stations (RF-WPSs) for use in LATVs.
  • Provide research and laboratory support for the development of new US and ISO industry standards for forward facing (FF-WPSs) for LATVs. 

Overview

Voluntary industry standards on wheelchair transportation are now having a profound impact on the quality and safety of products that are used by wheelchair users and transport providers throughout the US and other developed countries. The project lead PI has provided the committee leadership for the majority of the wheelchair transportation industry standards that are now published nationally and internationally, and continues to lead the working groups (US and ISO) on the evolving standard for the rear-facing wheelchair passenger station (RF-WPS). This task plans to build on this experience in order to; first, contribute to the completion of the ongoing RF-WPS effort by year 3, and secondly, initiate and support the development of a new forward-facing standard during years 3 to 5.

Expected Outputs and Short-Term Outcomes

Expected Outputs

  • Completed ANSI/RESNA and ISO standards for RF-WPS in LATVs
  • A FF-WPS standard at the mid stage of development.

Expected Outcome

Continuously improving voluntary industry standards that provide the blueprint for the systematic introduction and long-term improvement of wheelchair passenger stations in LATVs, that offer significantly improved access for wheelchair users, and reduced need for intervention by vehicle operators. Validation for the recommendations from the US.

 

 


Update July 2012: P1.3 Complete the Development of Voluntary Industry Standards for Large Accessible Transit Vehicles

Standard for Rear-Facing Wheelchair Passenger Stations (RF-WPS) in Large Accessible Transit Vehicles - 
A standard for rear-facing wheelchair passenger stations (RF-WPS) was developed as part of this task. The document has been reviewed by an editorial committee and moved to the FDIS (Final Draft International Standard) stage. In April 2012 the FDIS-10865-1 was circulated for voting. In May 2011 the ISO FDIS document was reworked into a RESNA standard and circulated among the RESNA committee members for review at the May 2011 standards meetings in Pittsburgh. The RESNA committee decided to pursue formal adoption of this standard as a national standard.

Standard for Forward-Facing Wheelchair Passenger Stations Standard in Large Accessible Transit Vehicles - 
A draft document was first presented to the ISO wheelchair transportation Working Group (WG6) and approved as a Preliminary Work Item (PWI) in October 2009. A New Work Item (NWI) was prepared in combination with a Committee Draft (CD) in the Fall of 2010. These NWI and CD 10865-1 documents were sent out early January 2011 to ISO to prepare the documents for circulation and voting. There was a delay in the voting process and a CD and NWI of 10865 was resubmitted in November 2011 and sent out for voting in March 2012. Voting comments were received and addressed for the May 2012 meeting in Milan. A proposal to develop a U.S. version of the standard was presented at the RESNA Committee on Wheelchairs and Transportation (COWHAT) in May 2011 and it was approved. A draft RESNA version of 10865-2 was developed and will be circulated among the COWHAT members for the June 2012 meeting in Baltimore.

A poster on the development of the Spimulator was presented at the 2011 Transportation Research Board conference in Washington DC.


A paper on the ATD selection for use in low-acceleration testing was accepted for publication at the annual RESNA conference in Baltimore, June 2012.

 


Update July 2011: P1.3 Complete the Development of Voluntary Industry Standards for Large Accessible Transit Vehicles

Standard for Rear-Facing Wheelchair Passenger Stations (RF-WPS) in Large Accessible Transit Vehicles - 
A standard for rear-facing wheelchair passenger stations (RF-WPS) is being developed as part of this task. A Draft International Standard, ISO 10865-2, was revised by the project team based on the comments of ISO Working Group 6 (WG6) members and participating countries. The test methods proposed in the standard have been evaluated at UMTRI and proposed changes have been discussed at several meetings of ISO WG 6. Final comments from all committee members/countries were discussed in the June 2010 meeting in Scotland. During this reporting period the document has been reviewed by an editorial committee and is in the process of moving to the FDIS (Final Draft in Standard) stage. We expected the FDIS document to be approved by ISO in the Spring of 2011, but have not heard confirmation as of this report. In May 2011 the ISO FDIS document was reworked into a RESNA standard and circulated among the RESNA/COWHAT members for review at the May 2011 standards meetings in Pittsburgh. The next step is voting and confirmation of the document as a national standard.

Standard for Forward-Facing Wheelchair Passenger Stations Standard in Large Accessible Transit Vehicles - 
A draft document was first presented to the ISO wheelchair transportation Working Group (WG6) and approved as a Preliminary Work Item (PWI) in October 2009. During this reporting period emphasis was placed on creating a complete committee draft of a standard for Forward Facing Wheelchair Passenger Stations for use in low-g environments of large transit buses. The participating members of the ISO Working Group provided initial input on the draft document, which is currently being revised for the upcoming fall 2011 ISO meeting. A New Work Item (NWI) was prepared in combination with a Committee Draft (CD) in the Fall of 2010. These NWI and CD 10865-1 documents were sent out early January 2011 to ISO to prepare the documents for circulation and voting. As of yet, we have not heard back from ISO as to when this NWI and CD will be circulated to the participating members. A proposal to develop a U.S. version of the standard was presented at the RESNA Committee on Wheelchairs and Transportation (COWHAT) in May 2011 and it was approved.

A review of the literature on test methods for evaluating occupant restraint and retention systems in low-g environments was conducted and two methods were selected as potential test methods that best represent non-crash low-g vehicle accelerations and decelerations. One method is based on low-g testing on the UMTRI sled. The second method is based on a rotary test facility that generates a low-g centripetal force.

UMTRI has conducted several tests using the impact sled to see if this test facility can be used to simulate long-duration low-g non-crash accelerations of large city buses during braking, turning, and acceleration. Testing has been conducted with a Hybrid III crash-test dummy in the surrogate wheelchair secured by the surrogate four-point tiedown. Two approaches have been explored. One is to use the low-g acceleration phase of the sled. The other is to use the sled brakes to stop the sled at .3 to .5 over approximately 2 seconds before the sled reaches the impact decelerator. The latter approach has proven to be the most successful and repeatable and several tests with a forward-facing surrogate wheelchair have been conducted at .3 to .4 g with the dummy unrestrained. Results demonstrate that a wheelchair occupant can tumble forward out of a wheelchair under these conditions. Future tests will be used to determine whether retractor-based belt restraint systems designed to provide effective occupant restraint under high-g frontal crash conditions will provide restraint for forward-facing wheelchair-seated passengers under long-duration low-g braking.

The University of Pittsburgh has explored the development of a rotary test system to simulate low accelerations on the wheelchair and occupant system. The prototype system, which is currently called the "SPIMULATOR" has been evaluated with manual and scooter-type wheelchairs with and without a midsize-male Hybrid II crash-test dummy. Accelerations associated with vehicle turns, vehicle accelerations, and vehicle braking have been replicated by the test device and the wheelchair/scooter demonstrated tipping and sliding, similar to that seen during testing in city buses during P1.1 testing. Other aspects that need to be determined include the final type of anthropometric test device to be used and the effect of different types of bus flooring on test results. Research to answer these questions has been completed and an informational sheet is prepared explaining the rational for selecting a Hybrid II ATD as test device.

Based on test results, a second generation Spimulator, that can test higher loads (600lbs) and that can be operated remotely, has been built at UPitt. Tests to evaluate the forward-facing design developed under P1.2 are planned for the summer of 2011m and additional test-method development for the ISO standard will occur in the fall of 2011.


Update July 2010: P1.3 Complete the Development of Voluntary Industry Standards for Large Accessible Transit Vehicles

Standard for Rear-Facing Wheelchair Passenger Stations (RF-WPS) in Large Accessible Transit Vehicles - 
A standard for rear-facing wheelchair passenger stations (RF-WPS) is being developed as part of this task and has reached the ISO Draft International Standard (DIS) stage during this reporting period. The draft standard was voted on by the ISO participating countries in October 2009. The Draft International Standard, ISO 10865-1, was then revised by the project team based on the comments of ISO Working Group 6 (WG6) members and participating countries. The test methods proposed in the standard have been evaluated at UMTRI and proposed changes have been discussed at several meetings of ISO WG 6 and the document has been reviewed by an editorial committee and is in the processing of moving to the FDIS (Final Draft in Standard) stage. Final comments from all committee members/countries have been discussed in the June 2010 meeting in Scotland.

Standard for Forward-Facing Wheelchair Passenger Stations Standard in Large Accessible Transit Vehicles - Preliminary work is underway as part of this project to develop a standard for Forward Facing Wheelchair Passenger Stations for use in low-g environments of large transit buses. A draft document was presented to the ISO wheelchair transportation Working Group (WG6) and approved as a preliminary work item in October 2009. The participating members of the ISO Working Group provided initial input on a draft document, which is currently being revised for the upcoming fall 2010 ISO meeting. A proposal for creation of a national standard will be presented at the upcoming meeting of the RESNA Committee on Wheelchairs and Transportation (COWHAT) to be held in Las Vegas on June 25, 2010.

A review of the literature on test methods for evaluating occupant restraint and retention systems in low-g environments was conducted and two methods were selected as potential test methods that best represent non-crash low-g vehicle accelerations and decelerations. One method is based on low g testing on the UMTRI sled. The second method is based on a rotary test facility that generates a low-g centripetal force.

UMTRI has conducted several tests using the impact sled to see this test facility can be used to simulate long-duration low-g non-crash accelerations of large city buses during braking, turning, and acceleration. Testing has been conducted with a Hybrid III crash-test dummy sitting in the surrogate wheelchair secured by the surrogate four-point tiedown. Two approaches have been explored. One is to use the low-g acceleration phase of the sled. The other is to use the sled brakes to stop the sled at .3 to .5 over approximately 2 seconds before the sled reaches the impact decelerator. The latter approach has proven to be the most successful and repeatable and several tests with a forward-facing surrogate wheelchair have been conducted at .3 to .4 g with the dummy unrestrained. Results demonstrate that a wheelchair occupant can tumble forward out of a wheelchair under these condition. Future tests will be used to determine whether retractor-based belt restraint systems designed to provide effective occupant restraint under high-g frontal crash conditions will provide restraint for forward-facing wheelchair-seated passengers under long-duration low-g braking.

The University of Pittsburgh explored the development of a rotary test facility to simulate low accelerations on the wheelchair and occupant system. The prototype facility, which is currently called the "SPIMULATOR" has been evaluated with a manual wheelchair and scooter with and without a midsize male Hybrid II crash-test dummy. Accelerations associated with vehicle turns, vehicle accelerations, and vehicle braking have been replicated by the test device and the wheelchair/scooter demonstrated tipping and sliding, similar to that seen during testing in city buses during P1.1 testing. Other aspects that need to be determined include the final type of anthropometric test device to be used and the effect of different types of bus flooring on test results. Research to answer these questions is planned for the summer of 2010.

 


Update July 2009: P1.3 Complete the Development of Voluntary Industry Standards for Large Accessible Transit Vehicles

A CD draft ISO standard on the rear facing passenger space was developed as part of this task and was voted upon by the ISO participating countries. The CD-RF-WPS was revised based on the comments of ISO committee members and sent out to members of WG-6 for comment. Work has been done to evaluate the test methods proposed in the standard. Changes were discussed at ISO meetings and the ISO 10865-1 document has been reviewed by the editorial committee and has now proceeded to the DIS (Draft in Standard) stage and is again sent out for committee vote to all participating committee members/countries.

At a meeting in Vienna (May 25-26, 2009), a Preliminary Work Item (PWI) was presented and approved on a Forward Facing Wheelchair Passenger Station for use in ultra-low-g environments (large transit buses). The participating members of the ISO committee also gave initial input on a draft PWI document which will be further developed into a New Work Item document.


Update July 2008: P1.3 Complete the Development of Voluntary Industry Standards for Large Accessible Transit Vehicles

A CD draft ISO standard on the rear facing passenger space was developed as part of this task and was voted upon by the ISO participating countries. The CD-RF-WPS was revised based on the comments of ISO committee members and sent out to members of WG-6 for comment. Work has been done to evaluate the test methods proposed in the standard. Outstanding issues related to this draft document were addressed during a recent ISO meeting in Louisville and at this point the CD is being prepared for the editorial committee before it will be sent out for a second CD voting by all participating committee members.

The RERC will participate in submitting voting comments from the US and then will actively participate in formulating the responses of the ISO-WG, as it works through the comments received from the all the participating countries.

To support the standard, a tilt table test and tilt table was developed to help determine the center of gravity of wheelchairs and scooters when occupied by a 50th percentile male dummy. These tests have been finalized and have helped establish increased research validation for the recommendations from the US.


Update July 2007: P1.3 Complete the Development of Voluntary Industry Standards for Large Accessible Transit Vehicles

A CD draft ISO standard on the rear facing passenger space was developed as part of this task and is currently being voted upon by the ISO participating countries. The RERC will participate in submitting voting comments from the US and then will actively participate in formulating the responses of the ISO-WG, as it works through the comments received from the all the participating countries.

As part of the standards development process specifications for a surrogate manual wheelchair and surrogate powered scooter were defined. In order to do this, a database was built with a range of manual wheelchairs and scooters.

To support the standard, a tilt table test and tilt table was developed to help determine the center of gravity of wheelchairs and scooters when occupied by a 50th percentile male dummy. These tests are being continued and expanded to established increased research validation for the recommendations from the US in the current voting cycle, as well support this position at future ISO-WG meetings, scheduled for October, 2007.

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Last updated: 07.13.2012