Technical Publications

UMTRI Authors

Bertocci G, Manary M, and Ha D. (2001) Wheelchairs Used as Motor Vehicle Seats: Seat Loading in Frontal Impact Sled Testing Engineering and Physics 23(10).

Buning ME, Bertocci G, Schneider LW, Manary M, Karg P, Brown D, and Johnson S. (2012). RESNA’s Position on Wheelchairs Used as Seats in Motor Vehicles Assistive Technology 24(2).

Hu J, Orton NR, Manary MA, Boyle K, and Schneider LW. (2020) Should Airbags Be Deactivated for Wheelchair-Seated Drivers? Traffic Injury Prevention 0(0):1–6.

Hu J, Klinich KD, Manary MA, Orton NR, Boyle K, Wang Y, Fischer K, Smith A &  Adler A (2022) Improving protection systems for wheelchair-seated occupants in vehicle side impacts, Traffic Injury Prevention.

Karg P, Buning ME, Bertocci G, Fuhrman S, Hobson D, Manary MA, Schneider L, van Roosmalen L (2009) State of the Science Workshop on Wheelchair Transportation Safety Assistive Technology : The Official Journal of RESNA 21(3):115–60.

Klinich KD, Manary MA, Boyle KJ, Orton NR, Hu J (2022) Development of an Automated Wheelchair Tiedown and Occupant Restraint System. UMTRI 2021-02. University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Klinich KD, Orton NR, Malik L, Zak E, St. Amour M, Manary MA (2021) Volunteer Evaluation of an Automated Wheelchair Tiedown and Occupant Restraint System. UMTRI 2021-04. University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Klinich KD, Orton NR, Fischer J, Manary MA (2022) Volunteer Evaluation of Wheelchair Accessibility in Vehicles. UMTRI 2022-10. University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Klinich KD, Orton NR, Manary MA (2022) Design Guidelines for Accessible Automated Vehicles: Mobility Focus. UMTRI 2022-8. University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute.

Klinich KD, Manary MA, Orton NR, Boyle KB, Hu J (2022) A Literature Review of Wheelchair Transportation Safety Relevant to Automated Vehicles. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 19(3):1633.

Manary MA, Ritchie NL, Flannagan CAC, Bertocci GE, Schneider LW (2009) The Effects of Pelvic Belt Anchoring Location on Wheelchair Seating System Loads in Frontal Impact Motor Vehicle Crashes in RESNA 32nd Annual Conference. New Orleans, LA.

Manary MA, Ritchie NL, Schneider LS (2010) WC19: A Wheelchair Transportation Safety Standard-Experience to Date and Future Directions Med Eng Phys 32(3):263-71

Manary MA, Ritchie NL, Schneider LW. (2005) Wheelchair and Crash Dummy Response in Far-Side Lateral Impacts in RESNA 28th Annual Conference. Atlanta, GA.

Manary MA, Ritchie NL, and Schneider LW (2010) WC19: A Wheelchair Transportation Safety Standard-Experience to Date and Future Directions Medical Engineering and Physics 32(3):263–71.

Manary MA, Woodruff LM, Bertocci GE, and Schneider LW (2003) Patterns of Wheelchair Response and Seating-System Failures in Frontal-Impact Sled Tests in RESNA 26th International Annual Conference.

Orton, Nichole R., Linda van Roosmalen, and Lawrence W. Schneider. 2019a. Summary of Occupant, Wheelchair Tiedown and Occupant Restraint System Configuration Data for Wheelchair-Seated Drivers and Front-Row Passengers in Private Vehicles. UMTRI Technical Report No. UMTRI-2011-30.

Ritchie, Nichole L., Miriam A. Manary, Gina E. Bertocci, and Lawrence W. Schneider. 2006. “Validation of a Surrogate Wheelchair Base for Evaluation of Wheelchair Seating System Crashworthiness.” in RESNA 29th Annual Conference. Atlanta, GA.

Ritchie, Nichole L., Miriam A. Manary, Linda van Roosmalen, and Lawrence W. Schneider. 2009. “The Role of Armrest Design on Positioning of Belt Restraints on Wheelchair-Seated Drivers.” in RESNA 32nd Annual Conference. New Orleans, LA.

Schneider, Lawrence W., Kathleen D. Klinich, Jamie L. Moore, and Joel B. MacWilliams. 2010. “Using In-Depth Investigations to Identify Transportation Safety Issues for Wheelchair-Seated Occupants of Motor Vehicles.” Medical Engineering and Physics 32(3):237-247.

Schneider, Lawrence W., Miriam A. Manary, Douglas A. Hobson, and Gina E. Bertocci. 2008. “Transportation Safety Standards for Wheelchair Users: A Review of Voluntary Standards for Improved Safety, Usability, and Independence of Wheelchair-Seated Travelers.” Assistive Technology 20(4): 222-33.

Schneider, Lawrence W., Miriam A. Manary, Nichole R. Orton, Jingwen Hu, Kathleen D. Klinich, Carol A. Flannagan, and Jamie L. Moore. 2016. Wheelchair Occupant Studies. UMTRI Technical Report No. 2016-07.

Schneider, Lawrence W. and Miriam Ashley Manary. 2006. “Wheeled Mobility Tiedown Systems and Occupant Restraints for Safety and Crash Protection.” Pp. 357–72 in Driver Rehabilitation and Community Mobility. Mosby Inc.

van Roosmalen, Linda, Nichole R. Orton, and Lawrence Schneider. 2013. “Safety, Usability, and Independence for Wheelchair-Seated Drivers and Front-Row Passengers of Private Vehicles: A Qualitative Research Study.” Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 50(2):239–52.

Weir, Quentin J. A., Brian J. Eby, Miriam A. Manary, Nichole R. Orton, and Lawrence W. Schneider. 2011. “A Seatbelt Deployment System for Drivers Seated in Wheelchairs.” in 31st RESNA Conference Proceedings. Arlington, VA.

Wiacek, C., A. Prasad, D. Weston, N. Orton, and L. Schneider. 2017. “Assessing the Performance of Steering Wheel Air Bags for Drivers Seated in Wheelchairs During Frontal Crash Tests.” in 25th International Technical Proceedings on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles (ESV).

Other Researchers

Bertocci, G. E., D. A. Hobson, and K. H. Digges. 2000. “Development of a Wheelchair Occupant Injury Risk Assessment Method and Its Application in the Investigation of Wheelchair Securement Point Influence on Frontal Crash Safety.” IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering 8(1).

Bertocci, G. E., S. Szobota, D. A. Hobson, and K. Digges. 1999. “Computer Simulation and Sled Test Validation of a Powerbase Wheelchair and Occupant Subjected to Frontal Crash Conditions.” IEEE Transactions on Rehabilitation Engineering 7(2):234–44.

Cabrolier, L., D’Souza R., Bertocci G., Tiernan J, and Simms C.. 2013. “The Influence of Shoulder and Pelvic Belt Floor Anchorage Location on Wheelchair Occupant Injury Risk: A Simulation Study.” in 2013 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings – International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury.

D’Souza, C., Steinfeld E., Paquet V., Feathers, D. 2010. “Space Requirements for Wheeled Mobility Devices in Public Transportation.” Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board.

D’ Souza, R. and G. Bertocci. 2010. “Development and Validation of a Computer Crash Simulation Model of an Occupied Adult Manual Wheelchair Subjected to a Frontal Impact.” Medical Engineering and Physics 32(3).

Frost K, Bertocci G ,Salipur Z (2013) Wheelchair Securement and Occupant Restraint System (WTORS) Practices in Public Transit BusesAssistive Technology, 25:1, 16-23. 

Hobson, Douglas A. and Linda van Roosmalen. 2007. “Towards the next Generation of Wheelchair Securement—Development of a Demonstration Udig-Compatible Wheelchair Docking Device.” Assistive Technology 19(4):210–22.

Kang, Weize and Walter D. Pilkey. 1998. “Crash Simulations of Wheelchair-Occupant Systems in Transport.” Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 35(1):73–84.

McDonnell, Gavin, Raymond D’Souza, Gina Bertocci, John Tiernan, and Ciaran Simms. 2012. “The Influence of Pelvic-Belt Angle on Wheelchair Occupant Injury Risk: A Simulation Study.” in 2012 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings – International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury.

Salipur, Zdravko and Gina Bertocci. 2010. “Development and Validation of Rear Impact Computer Simulation Model of an Adult Manual Transit Wheelchair with a Seated Occupant.” Medical Engineering and Physics 32(1).

Steinfeld, Edward, Victor Paquet, Clive D. D’Souza, Caroline Joseph, and Jordana Maisel. 2010. Anthropometry of Wheeled Mobility Project. Buffalo, NY.

Turkovich, Michael J., Linda van Roosmalen, Douglas A. Hobson, and Erik A. Porach. 2011. “The Effect of City Bus Maneuvers on Wheelchair Movement.” Journal of Public Transportation 14(3).

Van Roosmalen, L., G. E. Bertocci, D. A. Hobson, and P. Karg. 2002. “Preliminary Evaluation of Wheelchair Occupant Restraint System Usage in Motor Vehicles.” Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 39(1).

van Roosmalen, Linda, Patricia Karg, Douglas Hobson, Michael Turkovich, and Erik Porach. 2011. “User Evaluation of Three Wheelchair Securement Systems in Large Accessible Transit Vehicles.” The Journal of Rehabilitation Research and Development 48(7):823.

van Roosmalen, Linda, Sean A. Reeves, and Douglas A. Hobson. 2003. “Effect of Universal Docking Interface Geometry (UDIG) Placement on Wheelchair and Occupant Kinematics.” in RESNA 26th Annual Conference Proceedings. Atlanta.